CALTON, a manufacturing district and late a quoad sacra parish, in the parish of Barony, county of Lanark; included within the parliamentary boundary of Glasgow, and comprising Old and New Calton. These villages, formerly part of the barony of Barrowfield, were, by royal charter, in 1817, erected into a burgh of barony, containing about fifty-three acres, of which twelve are attached to Old, and forty-two to New Calton; the houses are neatly built of brick, and roofed with tiles, for the manufacture of which clay of good quality abounds in the immediate vicinity, and the streets, especially those of the latter village, are regularly formed. A handsome mechanics' institution has been erected. The population is chiefly employed in the cotton manufacture, and in hand-loom weaving, which are carried on to a very considerable extent; the manufacture of thread affords employment to several hundreds of men and women, and there are numerous shops for the supply of the inhabitants with groceries and other articles of merchandise. The government of the burgh is vested in a provost, three bailies, a treasurer, and eleven councillors, of whom one acts as dean of guild; they are all elected annually, with the exception of the elder bailie, who holds his office for two years; the provost is chosen by the burgesses generally, as are likewise the bailies and the treasurer. The burgesses have no exclusive privileges, nor can any inhabitant be compelled to be a burgess; those who choose to become burgesses pay a fee of £2. 2. on admission. The magistrates and council have the privilege of a weekly market, which is held on Saturday, and of which they receive the tolls and customs. Their jurisdiction extends, in civil cases, over the territory of the burgh, and, in criminal cases, over the whole of the police district; they hold a court for the recovery of debts not exceeding 40s., and a police court, in which a town-clerk, appointed by the superior of the burgh, acts as assessor. The number of £10 householders is 264, of whom thirty-two are resident burgesses. The late quoad sacra parish of Middle Calton, containing 7185 inhabitants, and comprised within the presbytery of Glasgow and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, was formed in 1834; the minister's stipend is £250: the church, built in 1793, as a chapel of ease, at an expense of £1495, and since repaired and enlarged, is a neat structure, and contains 1400 sittings. There are places of worship for members of the Relief Church, and Wesleyans; a burgh school, in which are 140 children, is taught by a master who has a house rent-free, and £10, in addition to the fees, and there are numerous other schools.

A Topographical dictionary of Scotland. . 1856.

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